- Heat olive oil in a large pot over medium heat. Cook and stir onion, celery, and carrots until tender, 6 to 8 minutes. Stir garlic into onion mixture; cook, stirring, until fragrant, about 1 minute. Remove pot from heat.
- Heat a large skillet over medium-high heat. Cook and stir ground beef in batches in the hot skillet until browned and crumbly, 5 to 10 minutes. Transfer browned beef to onion mixture in the large pot using a slotted spoon.
- Heat onion-beef mixture over medium heat. Stir vegetable juice, beef broth, tomatoes, Italian seasoning, beef bouillon, thyme, cayenne pepper, salt, and black pepper into beef mixture. Bring to a boil, reduce heat to low, cover, and simmer to blend the flavors, at least 1 hour.
- Stir corn, kidney beans, cannellini beans, great Northern beans, green beans, peas, lima beans, and okra into beef mixture; bring to a boil, reduce heat to low, and simmer until heated through, about 10 minutes.